Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of managing the information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users and editing it when needed, monitoring data changes, and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It’s a component of a company’s overall informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory, to supporting complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data according to a particular arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields called attributes that provide information about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type currently. This model is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to modify different sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level focuses on costs, scalability, and other operational concerns such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the way the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of various external views (based on the different data models) and may include virtual tables which are generated from data that is generic to enhance performance.

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